1. Pharmacy

Pharmacy is the science which treats of medicinal substances. The word pharmacy is also used to define the place where medicines are compounded, dispensed and sold. Pharmacist is a person who demonstrates that he is scientifically and professionally capable to engage in the practice of pharmacy. To become a pharmacist one should achieve knowledge of different subjects, such as physics, chemistry, botany, etc.

Physics is the science, which deals with matter in general, especially its relation to energy. Chemistry is the science, which explains the composition of matter and the transformations, which it undergoes. It has many divisions such as General Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Physical Chemistry, Biochemistry and many other fields. Botany is the science, dealing with the history, source cultivation, collection, preparation, distribution, composition, purity and preservation of drugs of vegetable and animal origin. Pharmacology is the science of drugs. A Pharmacopoeia is a book containing a list of medicinal substances with formulas for their preparation. The Pharmacopoeia describes also the proper method of packaging and storing the drug.

 

2. My family (!)

My name is ... I am a student of the pharmaceutical school. I want to tell you about my family which I love very much. My family is small: I and my mother.

My mother is a pharmacist at the chemists. Her name is ...

 

3. Parts of the human body. (!)

I want to tell you about my friend. Her face is round. Her ears are small. She has a healthy tooth in her mouth. Her hear is blond. Her eyes are gray.

 

 

4. The diet

If a person wants to be in good health he must be careful about his diet.

People of physical work need more food than people of mental work.

It is important to know that a diet must consist of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, water and vitamins.

All this you can find in fish, meat, liver, kidney, cheese, eggs, milk, sugar, bread, potatoes, butter and nuts.  Any patient with high temperature has a very poor appetite and so a nurse must be careful. If a patient has high temperature for a long time he becomes very weak and it is very important to give him high caloric diet. A careful nurse does a lot to help the patient to become healthy. You can treat many diseases by diet.

 

5. Vitamins

Vitamins play a very important role in human health. Overdosage of some vitamins may be harmful, so people must take normal doses of vitamins.

Winter is the time for virus infections, cold and flu and your resistance is especially low.

Take vitamins A, D, C every day.

You will find vitamin A in carrots, fish oil, eggs, his to protect eyesight, increase resistance to infection.

Vitamin B in liver, eggs, yeast. His to strengthen nervous system. Cooking destroys vitamin B. Take it daily.

Vitamin C in cherry, orange, lemon, fruit and vegetables, his increase resistance to infection. It helps to recover after illness. Take it daily. 

Vitamin D in milk, eggs, fish, yeast, his help the body in formation of bones and strong teeth.

Vitamin E in soya, fruit, his improve poor blood circulation, in treatment of thrombosis, varicose veins.

 

6. Water

Water is very important to all living things. In the living body water carries foodstuffs from one part of the body to another.

Man gets one half of his water in the food he eats, especially in fruit and vegetables. More than 70 percent of the body is composed of water. Daily we lose some water.

The human body gives off about 5 pints of water every twenty-four hours through the lungs, sweat glands and kidneys. If 10 percent of the body water is lost without replacements, there will be serious signs of illness. If 20% of the body water is lost a person may die. The maximum time that a person can go without water is about 7-10 days.

 

7. First aid (Shock)

Everybody must know how to give the first aid. The first aid saves many lives. The first aid is the help which you give to an injured person. You must know different methods of helping in accidents. When you give the first aid you must be calm and act without panic. 

I want to tell about Shock.

Shock is very dangerous. Loss of blood can cause shock. Severe pain or strong emotion can cause shock too. The face of a person in shock is usually pale and the skin is cold. Breathing is rapid and shallow. The pulse is rapid. If you help a person who is in shock:

1.      Lay his flat on his back.

2.      Raise his feet little.

3.      Cover him with blankets to keep him warm.

4.      Give him a warm drink.

5.      Keep him quiet.

 

8. In a hospital ()

I am a student a pharmaceutical school and I say about work at a therapeutic hospital. Many doctors and nurses work at the hospital. Work at the hospital begins at 6 oclock in the morning. The nurses begin to take the patients temperature at 6 oclock.  They write it down in temperature charts. Then the nurse gives the patients medicines and carries out other prescriptions of the doctors. They open the windows and air the wards. The doctors come at 9 oclock in the morning and begin to examine the patients. The doctors ask a ward nurse about condition of a patient. Sometimes a ward nurse tells him, that they are well. Sometimes she tells him that the temperature of some of the patients is high and the doctor prescribes some new medicine or injections. The nurse works can be learnt by practice.

 

9. Illness. Pneumonia

Pneumonia begins suddenly. In most cases the temperature rises quickly. The fast and breathing are fast. Cough begins early and at first is dry and painful. The patient is feels ill, has a flushed face and dry tongue.

In severe cases there may be delirium. A patient in delirium is very restless and the nurse must pay special attention to such patients.

Patients with pneumonia need rest and sleep.  The best position for a patient is half-sitting. Fresh air is very important. Give such patients much drink. The diet must be light.

 

10. Blood pressure

The BP is the pressure of the blood.

The BP can be normal, low and high. The normal BP is between 110-140 over 70-90.

If a person of 20 has a BP of 140-150 it is dangerous. And the nurse must immediately take care of such a patient. If a patient has hypertension, he may often complain of headaches, nose bleedings, and heartaches. The doctor prescribed him hypotensive drugs. This patient must not work hard. Hypotension BP is caused by different conditions. Anemia may be a cause of hypotension. The nurse must be very attentive to the patient.

 

11. How to take the pulse

The nurse must be careful when she takes the patients pulse. It is not difficult. Put three fingers of the left hand over the radial artery. Many patients are nervous when they see a nurse or a doctor and the patients pulse is faster. Thats why the nurse must wait a few seconds before she begins to take the pulse. Changes in the pulse are very important. When you take the pulse you must note:

1.      If it is deep or shallow,

2.      the rate,

3.      the strength of the beating,

4.      the rhythm.

 

12. Infectious diseases (Scarlet fever)

The nurse must remember them: The nurse must wear a mask and a special gown when she goes to look after an infected patient, the nurse must wash her hands carefully with soap and running water each time she goes from an infectious patient, disinfect bed-clothes after use. Scarlet fever is an infection disease. We can often meet scarlet fever in children and only sometimes in grown-ups. The disease passes from one person to another through the nose and mouth. The patient has a sore throat, fever, headache and he often vomits. The face is flushed and the skin feels hot and dry. The temperature rises quickly on the first day and remains high for a few days. The rush appears on the second day. We must isolate the child with scarlet fever and put him in bed. When the temperature falls the nurse gives him nourishing food.

 

13. In the surgical department

When surgeon comes to the hospital he goes to his wards to examine his patients. He asks the ward nurse about the post-operative condition of his patients.  She often tells him that there are no post-operative reactions. And sometimes she tells the doctor that the temperature of some of the post-operative patients is rather high and some of them have a swelling. The surgeon gives necessary instructions to the nurse. Before begins operation the doctor washed his arms and hands. The assistant gave the patient anesthesia. The nurse gave the surgeon a scalpel and he began the operation.

The work at the surgical department is rather difficult but very interesting.

 

14. The man who discovered chloroform

Many years ago nobody knew about chloroform.

The doctor who discovered chloroform was James Simpson. He lived in Edinburgh. Once he came home with two other doctors. When he was looking for some papers on his desk he saw a little bottle with chloroform. He opened the bottle; chloroform had a strong but not unpleasant smell. He decided to breathe chloroform in and he became sleepy and soon fell into a deep sleep. After the experiment Dr. Simpson began to use chloroform during his operations. Doctors could operate on people without hurting patients.

 

15. Health is above wealth

We understand that good health is above wealth. To be healthy we should avoid as bad habits as smoking, drinking, use drugs and fast foods. Smoking, for example, causes a number of a heart and lung diseases. A lot of people like drinking Coca-Cola and coffee and enjoy pizzas and hamburgers. But what is tasty now always healthy. People started to eat less fat and more fiber. I think it is necessary to take care of our health. Sleeping eight or nine hours, getting up, early, regular meals, a healthy diet and going in for sports are really good way to live. If a grown-up person doesnt exercise he can easily get heart disease, nervous tension and other illnesses. Physically inactive people get old earlier than those who exercise.

16-17. Environmental protection

Our Earth is our home, so it we want to protect our home we should protect our environment from harmful effects of human activity. Some of these activities cause pollution. Pollution now is a crucial problem. Some of these problems are: the ozone holes, global warming and acid rain. The ozone layer is a layer of gases, which stop harmful radiation from the sun protecting the earth. Global warming is an increase in worlds temperature. Acid rain is rain that contains dangerous chemicals. Another problem is poisons in food. Farmers often spray chemicals in crops to save them from pests. These chemicals are called pesticides. They are cause health problems. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison. Every day millions of people from all over the world do much to protect our environment and they need for our help. I think we must make our future better.

 

18. Pharmacognosy

The term of pharmacognosy comes from the Greek words pharmakon drug; and gnosis knowledge and means the total knowledge of drugs.

The solubility of plant elements depends on their chemical structure. Among the carbo-hydrates the true sugars such as glucose, sucrose and lactose are soluble in water and to a limited extent in alcohol, but are insoluble in chloroform and in ether.

The mucilages are insoluble in water, alcohol, chloroform and ether.

The glycosides are soluble in water.

The volatile oils are slightly soluble in water. Alcohol is an ideal solvent.

 

20. At the chemists

When you are ill you consult a doctor and he prescribes you some medicine. Then you go to the chemists to buy or to order them.

There are usually 2 departments in a large chemists: at one of them you can buy the medicine immediately, at another one - the prescription department you can order it.

At any chemists all the drugs are kept in drug cabinets. Each medicine has a label on it. White labels indicate drugs for internal use, yellow for external use and blue for injections. The doze is also indicated on a label. It prevents confusing different drug because some of which are poisonous. Their over dosage may cause unfavorable reactions and even death. At the chemists one can buy different drugs for intramuscularly and intravenous injections, for internal and for external use.

 

21. The Sulfonamides

Sulfonamides were discovered in 1935. Sulfa drugs were widely used in medicine during World War II. Sulfa drugs treat many infectious diseases. They are also preventing meningitis, scarlet fever, mumps and chicken-pox. 

Sulfonamides are often used in place of antibiotics. Sometimes sulfonamides produce toxic side-effects: nausea, vomit, headache and rash.

 

22. About antibiotics

The term antibiotic means against life.

The effect of antibiotics was discovered by Fleming in 1929.

Penicillin was the first of the antibiotics. Penicillin is given orally, intramuscularly and topically.

Streptomycin is effective in many cases when penicillin cant help. It is soluble in water. It is given intramuscularly and orally.

Erythromycin is used by patients who are hypertensive to penicillin. Erythromycin is used in water solutions for ear and nose infections. It is also made in tablets.

Neomycin is effective against a wide variety of microbes. It gives little or no allergic reactions. It is orally and topically. In some cases neomycin is used as a wet dressing instead of ointment.

 

23. Medical plants

The collection and use of medicinal plants began many thousands years ago. Hippocrates wrote his books about such drugs.

Some drugs are made from fruits, leaves, flowers, roots, seeds of the plants. It is very important to collect plants in proper time.

Leaves are collected when they are fully developed. Flowers are collected before the time of pollination. Fruits are collected when they are fully grown but unripe.

To dry plants correctly is also very important. If it is made carelessly the drug may be spoiled.

Drug plants which have glycosides must be dried at a low temperature. Digitalis leaves must be dried in the same way.

 

24. Some rules for the work of a laboratory ( , )

When he works at the laboratory he must remember the following rules: Microscope slides and cover-slips must be put into jars of disinfectant solution. He must not moisten labels with the tongue. He must wear a laboratory coat. Ye must not eat, drink or smoke in the laboratory. He must inoculating needles before and after use. He must heat them in the flame until red hot. He must always keep test-tubes with cultures in test-tube racks. He must wash his hands before living the laboratory. The laboratory assistant must write down all the work carried out in the laboratory into the laboratory report-book. The report must be written in the following form: Title of the experiment and the date. The object of the experiment. The description of the methods used and the names and descriptions of the organisms. The descriptions of the results. The conclusion from the results.

 

26. Pavlov.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Ryazan.

In 1870 Pavlov entered Petersburg University to study natural sciences.

At the Academy Pavlov discovered new facts about the blood pressure.

In 1890 Pavlov began to lecture on physiology in the Military Academy. He was a very popular lecturer. His lectures were very simple and clear. He did not use notes since his memory was wonderful.

Pavlov studied the work of the digestive system. He made many experiments on dogs. Pavlov never operated unless it was really necessary and he always used anaesthetics. He was a very good surgeon. Pavlov made great contribution to medical science.

Pavlov died at the age of 86.

27. Hippocrates.

Hippocrates was born in Greece. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and then went from town to town where he practiced the art of medicine. We have his writings which are called Hippocratic Collection. The collection consists of many books. The Collection begins with the famous Oath.

Hippocrates was an excellent practitioner and a teacher of a medicine. Hippocrates freed medicine from superstition.

Hippocrates knew the use of many drags and he was a good surgeon.

Hippocrates made medicine an art, a science and a profession.

He was often called the father of Medicine and some of his ideas are still important.

 

 28. . .

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Ryazan.

In 1870 Pavlov entered Petersburg University to study natural sciences.

At the Academy Pavlov discovered new facts about the blood pressure.

In 1890 Pavlov began to lecture on physiology in the Military Academy. He was a very popular lecturer. His lectures were very simple and clear. He did not use notes since his memory was wonderful.

Pavlov studied the work of the digestive system. He made many experiments on dogs. Pavlov never operated unless it was really necessary and he always used anaesthetics. He was a very good surgeon. Pavlov made great contribution to medical science.

Pavlov died at the age of 86.

 

29. Cosmetics.

Women in Egypt used cosmetics more than 4 thousand years ago. These women painted their eyebrows and added a dark line under each eye.

Women in Rome used cosmetics too. They used powder for whitening the skin and red color for the cheeks. A rich Poman lady spent a lot of time over her toilet. The Poman poet Ovid wrote a book about cosmetics and gave many recipes.

In England in the 17th and 18th centuries it was a custom for ladies of fashion to paint their faces and to blacken their eyebrows. In 19th century there was a change of taste and the ladies who used cosmetics were not accepted in high society.

Today the use of cosmetics is accepted everywhere.

 

30. My future profession.

Today pharmacology is a very quickly growing sphere of knowledge. New medicines appear every day. In every drugstore must be a specialist who can give you information about different drug.

A good pharmacist must be a well-educated person. He must be able to give a good professional advice if you need it. He must be very responsible. He must be attentive and patient with his patient. He should be smile because a smile and kind word can be better than any medicine. I want to be a pharmacist because I like this profession and I want to help people.

 


  

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